Examples of dangerous carabiner loading. - Petzl USA
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Examples of dangerous carabiner loading.

A carabiner is strongest when loaded on the major axis, with the gate closed and the sleeve locked. Loading a carabiner in any other way can be dangerous.

Warnings

  • Read the technical notice before viewing the following techniques.
  • It is important to fully understand the information provided in the technical notice before using this complementary information
  • Mastering these techniques requires training.
  • Consult a professional before attempting to perform these techniques on your own.

Load position

Barring exceptional circumstances, a carabiner is designed to be loaded on the major axis.

Barring exceptional circumstances, a carabiner is designed to be loaded on the major axis.

Only the strength rating for the major axis with gate closed is suitable for the loads sustained by a carabiner in vertical activities.



Loading on any axis other than the major axis, and any poor positioning, will result in reduced strength.

The primary risks

Risk of unclipping

The gate can come open if:

  • The carabiner is not properly closed at the time of attachment (e.g. sling caught between the nose and the gate).
  • The carabiner was improperly closed or improperly locked before use and the rock, the rope or an item of equipment presses on the gate.
  • The rock, the rope, or an item of equipment rubs against and unlocks the sleeve, and pushes on the gate in the direction of opening.


Risk of carabiner breakage

Note: Vertical practices involving a single user who is properly equipped and protected from falls rarely generate enough force to break a carabiner. However, any fall can produce an impact force that approaches the breaking strength of a poorly positioned carabiner.

Risks common to locking and non-locking carabiners

Risks of damaging the locking sleeve

Examples of risk situations in the field

1. Opening of the gate, open gate loading

Opening of the gate, open gate loading
Opening of the gate > Release of the load/person

Opening of the gate

> Release of the load/person

Open gate loading > Risk of carabiner breakage

Open gate loading

> Risk of carabiner breakage

Information

A carabiner with the gate open is weak: only 30 % of the major axis strength (e.g. 7 kN instead of 27 kN on the major axis for the Am’D).

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2. Minor axis loading

Minor axis loading
A carabiner loaded on the minor axis is weak
A carabiner loaded on the minor axis is weak
Information

A carabiner loaded on the minor axis is weak: only 35 % of the major axis strength (e.g. 8 kN instead of 27 kN on the major axis for the Am’D).

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3. Multidirectional loading

Multidirectional loading
The strength loss in a multidirectional load depends on the angle between the axes of loading.
The strength loss in a multidirectional load depends on the angle between the axes of loading.
Information

The strength loss in a multidirectional load depends on the angle between the axes of loading.

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4. Loading over an edge

Loading over an edge
A carabiner loaded over an edge is weak
A carabiner loaded over an edge is weak
Information

A carabiner loaded over an edge is weak: only 30 % of the major axis strength (e.g. 6 kN instead of 23 kN on the major axis for the SPIRIT SL).

This value varies greatly depending on the position of the edge (in the middle of the gate or closer to the nose...).

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5. Overloaded carabiner

The major axis strength of a carabiner is optimal when the load is closest to the spine side of the frame.

If the load shifts to the gate side, the strength is reduced.

Overloaded carabiner
If the load shifts to the gate side, the strength is reduced.
If the load shifts to the gate side, the strength is reduced.
Information

Strength loss is most pronounced with a pear-shaped carabiner, as the nose is rather far from the spine side of the frame. Their shape also contributes to poor positioning of the load. A carabiner loaded on the gate side is weak: only 30 % of the major axis strength (e.g. 7 kN instead of 27 kN on the major axis for the WILLIAM).

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6. Various cantilever loads

Risque de rupture du mousqueton 5/7
The strength of a carabiner in this case can be less than 30 % of the major axis strength.
The strength of a carabiner in this case can be less than 30 % of the major axis strength.
Information

The different cantilever positions are too numerous to be exhaustively tested.

The strength of a carabiner in this case can be less than 30 % of the major axis strength.

A pronounced cantilever load can also damage the supporting device or anchor.

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7. Pressure on the sleeve (risk of sleeve damage)

Pressure on the sleeve (risk of sleeve damage) 1/2
Pressure on the sleeve (risk of sleeve damage) 2/2
The locking sleeve is the weakest part of your carabiner.
The locking sleeve is the weakest part of your carabiner.
Information

The locking sleeve is the weakest part of your carabiner.

The European standards require a sleeve strength of 1 kN under external pressure (a value easily reached in the field).

Certain standards require much higher strengths, for example 16 kN for the ANSI Z359.12 standard.

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8. Rubbing on the sleeve (risk of opening the sleeve and gate)

Rubbing on the sleeve (risk of opening the sleeve and gate)
Rubbing on the sleeve (risk of opening the sleeve and gate)
Rubbing on the sleeve (risk of opening the sleeve and gate)

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